Saturday, March 8, 2008

Visit Nepal, Tour to Nepal, Mountain Place Nepal a Complete Tourism spot

Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल [neˈpaːl] (help·info)) is a landlocked nation in South Asia, bordering the People's Republic of China to the North and India to the South, East and West.

On May 18, 2006, Nepal was declared a secular state by the Interim Parliament of Nepal. On December 28, 2007, the interim parliament passed a bill and declared Nepal to be a federal democratic republic.[3] The current king, Gyanendra Shah, will be the last king of Nepal if the present ruling parties win the scheduled April 2008 elections.

For a relatively small country, Nepal has a diverse landscape, ranging from the humid Terai plain lands in the south to the mountainous Himalayas in the north. Eight of the world's top ten highest mountains, including Mount Everest, are in Nepal.
Nepal's flag is the only national flag that is not quadrilateral in shape.

The word “Nepal” was derived from the word “Nepa:” which refers to the Newar Kingdom of Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas, before the unification of Nepal. Newars, a lingual community (derived from various ethnicities) of present day Nepal, are believed to be among the earliest settlers of the Kathmandu valley called "Nepa:". The Nepal Sambat calendar, named after this Newar kingdom and devised 1100 years ago, is still one of the major calendars used in Nepal and testifies to its antiquity.

There are many other theories on the origin of word "Nepal". Some historians suggest that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established Kathmandu valley during prehistoric times and the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place protected ("pala" in Sanskrit) by the sage "Ne". Another legend ties the name to agriculture; "Ne" means wool in Tibetan language and "pal" means house or godown. It is important to realize that "Nepal" was historically the name of present day Kathmandu valley only. The official calender of Nepal is Bikram Sambat, which was devised in 57 B.C.


Nepali is the official language of Nepal, and one of the national languages. It has evolved from various hill-tribe dialects over the last five hundred[citation needed] years. It was originally called Khas Kura, but became known as Nepali during the 20th century.[4] Since Nepali does not have its own alphabet and uses Devanagari, Government of Nepal submitted alphabets of Nepal Bhasa (Ranjana Lipi) to the United Nations as a Nepali national alphabet. One of the first written inscriptions in Nepali is found on a stone of King Pratap Malla (17th century) period. This inscription is also the earliest prose written in "Nepali". However many people in Nepal can speak English very well.

Political status

On December 28, 2007, the government proposed to amend Article 159 of the constitution and declare Nepal a federal republic, thereby abolishing the monarchy. As per the amendment, Article 159 of the interim constitution was amended - replacing "Provisions regarding the King" by "Provisions of the Head of the State."

If the parties present in current ruling coalition win the election for constituent assembly scheduled for April 2008, the current king, Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev shall give up the title and throne, making him the last ruling monarch. Nepal would then be a federal democratic state with an elected head of state. However, the Interim Government and the Parliament has not decided the format of the would be elected government.

[edit] History

Main article: History of Nepal

Nepal is mentioned in Hindu scriptures such as the Narayana Puja[5] and the Atharva Siras (800-600 BC).[6] Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least 9,000 years. It appears that people who were probably of Tibeto-Burman ethnicity lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago.[7] Around 1000 BC, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the region. From one of these, the Shakya confederation, arose a prince named Siddharta Gautama (563–483 BC), who later renounced his royalty to lead an ascetic life and came to be known as the Buddha ("the enlightened one"). By 250 BCE, the region came under the influence of the Mauryan empire of northern India, and later became a vassal state under the Gupta Dynasty in the fourth century CE. From the late fifth century CE, rulers called the Licchavis governed the area. The Licchavi dynasty went into decline in the late eighth century and was followed by a Newari era, from 879, although the extent of their control over the entire country is uncertain. By the late 11th century, southern Nepal came under the influence of the Chalukaya Empire of southern India. Under the Chalukayas, Nepal's religious establishment changed as the kings patronised Hinduism instead of the prevailing Buddhism.

By the early 12th century, leaders were emerging whose names ended with the Sanskrit suffix malla ("wrestler"). Initially their reign was marked by upheaval before the kings consolidated their power over the next 200 years. By the late 14th century much of the country began to come under a unified rule. This unity was short-lived; in 1482 the region was carved into three kingdoms: Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhadgaon.

Hindu temples in Patan, capital of one of the three medieval Newar kingdoms
Hindu temples in Patan, capital of one of the three medieval Newar kingdoms

After centuries of petty rivalry between the three kingdoms, in the mid-18th century Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkha King set out to unify the kingdoms. Seeking arms and aid from India, and buying the neutrality of bordering Indian kingdoms, he embarked on his mission in 1765. After several bloody battles and sieges, he managed to unify Kathmandu Valley three years later in 1768. However, an actual battle never took place to conquer the Kathmandu valley; it was taken over by Prithvi Narayan and his troops without any effort, during Indra Jatra, a festival of Newars, when all the valley's citizens were celebrating the festival. This event marked the birth of the modern nation of Nepal. There is historical evidence that, at one time, the boundary of Greater Nepal extended from Tista River on the East to Kangara, across Sutlej River, in the west. A dispute and subsequently war with Tibet over the control of mountain passes forced the Nepalese to retreat and pay heavy repatriations. Rivalry between Nepal and the British East India Company over the annexation of minor states bordering Nepal eventually led to the Anglo-Nepalese War (1815–16). The valor displayed by the Nepalese during the war astounded their enemies and earned them their image of fierce and ruthless "Gurkhas". The war ended with a treaty, the Treaty of Sugauli. This treaty ceded Sikkim and lands in Terai to the Company. Some parts of Terai Region were given back to Nepal by British East India Company as a friendly gesture to Nepal because of her role to help maintain control of their regime in India during the so called Sepoy Rebellion of 1857. The decision to help British East India Company was taken by the Rana Regime, then led by Jang Bahadur Rana.

Factionalism inside the royal family had led to a period of instability. In 1846 a plot was discovered, revealing that the reigning queen had planned to overthrow Jang Bahadur, a fast-rising military leader. This led to the Kot Massacre; armed clashes between military personnel and administrators loyal to the queen led to the execution of several hundred princes and chieftains around the country. Bahadur emerged victorious and founded the Rana lineage. The king was made a titular figure, and the post of Prime Minister was made powerful and hereditary. The Ranas were staunchly pro-British, and assisted the British during the Sepoy Rebellion in 1857, and later in both World Wars. In 1923, the United Kingdom and Nepal formally signed an agreement of friendship, in which Nepal's independence was recognised by the UK.


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